Mining removal – Mine 3 http://www.mine3.net/ Sun, 11 Sep 2022 10:56:50 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 http://www.mine3.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/cropped-icon-32x32.png Mining removal – Mine 3 http://www.mine3.net/ 32 32 Hong Kong police launch air-land-sea lockdown for underwater demining after war device found containing over 220kg of explosives http://www.mine3.net/hong-kong-police-launch-air-land-sea-lockdown-for-underwater-demining-after-war-device-found-containing-over-220kg-of-explosives/ Sun, 11 Sep 2022 03:13:00 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/hong-kong-police-launch-air-land-sea-lockdown-for-underwater-demining-after-war-device-found-containing-over-220kg-of-explosives/

Hong Kong police have launched an air-land-sea lockdown in the southeastern part of the city in preparation for an underwater operation to destroy a wartime naval mine filled with more than 220 kg (485 pounds) of high explosives.

Acting Chief Superintendent Suryanto Chin-chiu of the force’s Explosive Ordnance Disposal office said Thursday it was the first time a complete British-made mine had been discovered in the city in three decades.

Divers from the force’s elite squad, known as the Flying Tigers, and bomb disposal officers were deployed to locate the mine after it was spotted by a diver on the seabed off the coast of Cape D’Aguilar on August 8.

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Police will carry out an operation to remove the mine from the waters between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. Friday.

According to strength, the mine was discovered at a depth of 15 meters (49 feet), 1.5 km (0.9 miles) northeast of Cape D’Aguilar.

Suryanto said he believed the device was laid down by Britain’s Royal Navy during World War II and remained there for more than 70 years.

“Shells have grown on its surface, which also shows signs of seawater erosion,” he said.

He warned that even though the mine had lain at the bottom of the sea for decades, its explosive contents could still explode. “If someone or a ship accidentally comes into contact with the mine or someone deliberately interferes with it, the risk of an explosion cannot be ignored,” he said.

A wartime naval mine filled with over 220 kg of high explosives.  Picture: handout

Taking into account factors such as the amount of explosives contained and the depth of the water, Suryanto said the initial assessment showed that the affected area would extend up to 1 km from the naval mine if an explosion was triggered.

But he said the Cape D’Aguilar Marine Protected Area and areas where people live and work on the shore would not be affected, adding that no evacuations were needed.

For security reasons, he said police had imposed restricted areas on land and at sea since midday Thursday, adding that the airspace around Cape D’Aguilar would also be listed as a temporary restricted flying area for small unmanned aircraft such as drones between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. on Fridays.

Hong Kong researchers appalled to find neglected WWII relics

With Cape D’Aguilar being a popular site for hiking, diving and paragliding, the Acting Chief Superintendent called on the public to stay away from the restricted area during the police operation.

Chai Wan Divisional Commander Superintendent Chiang Shui-ching said the cordoned off areas covered popular spots such as Bukhara Battery, Crab Cave, Whale Bone and Cape D’Aguilar Lighthouse. .

She said people with valid reasons, such as those who live or work in the affected area, would be allowed to enter the area after being cleared by the police.

Suryanto said the force was capable and confident of clearing the mine safely, adding that around 500 officers would be deployed in the operation.

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CRZ notification allows manual disposal of sand, as per Karnataka HC rules http://www.mine3.net/crz-notification-allows-manual-disposal-of-sand-as-per-karnataka-hc-rules/ Sat, 10 Sep 2022 22:10:16 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/crz-notification-allows-manual-disposal-of-sand-as-per-karnataka-hc-rules/

Manual sand removal is permitted under the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) notification, according to the Karnataka High Court.

A divisional bench headed by Acting Chief Justice Alok Aradhe said this while granting relief to a group of 30 temporary permit holders from Dakshina Kannada.

The claimants argued that they are traditionally engaged in fishing and have obtained temporary permits for the removal of sandbanks accumulated on the banks of the river in the Dakshina Kannada district ZCR.

They claimed a seven-member committee issued them temporary permits on May 7, 2022, which are in effect until March 4, 2023, excluding four months during the monsoon between June and September 2022.

The petitioners jointly challenged the order of the District Sand Monitoring Committee dated May 21, 2022, which suspended their license as well as the notices issued on May 23, 2022 by the Deputy Director of Mines and Geology.

They argued that the order had been made in violation of the principles of natural justice insofar as the applicants had not had the opportunity to be heard.

The division bench noted that the Ministry of Environment and Forests issued a memorandum dated November 8, 2011, after the state government made a request for permission to remove the benches. sand by the manual method.

The bench further observed that the orders/notices issued against the petitioners were based on a misinterpretation of the order issued by the National Green Tribunal (NGT) dated May 18, 2022.

“It is evident that the NGT was facing an issue of illegal mining in the river bed in the area covered by the Coastal Regulatory Area notification in Udupi district. The aforementioned order of the green court could not have been made applicable to the petitioners who hold temporary permits in Dakshina Kannada, without giving them an opportunity to hear them. In any event, the ordinance adopted by the NGT cannot be interpreted to mean that it imposes an absolute ban on the removal of sandbanks, even by a manual method,” the bench said.

The bench also said that the authorities were free to take appropriate measures to ensure that no illegal sand extraction took place by mechanized means and added that the petitioners should be allowed to remove the sandbanks by a manual method only in terms of temporary permits issued to them.

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Succession of Charles: the former colonies demand reparations and the dismissal of the monarch as head of state http://www.mine3.net/succession-of-charles-the-former-colonies-demand-reparations-and-the-dismissal-of-the-monarch-as-head-of-state/ Fri, 09 Sep 2022 09:23:02 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/succession-of-charles-the-former-colonies-demand-reparations-and-the-dismissal-of-the-monarch-as-head-of-state/ King of Brittany Charles III. Reuters Photo file The accession of King Charles to the British throne has sparked new calls from politicians and activists for former Caribbean …]]>

King of Brittany Charles III. Reuters Photo File

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King of Brittany Charles III. Reuters Photo file

The accession of King Charles to the British throne has sparked new calls from politicians and activists for former Caribbean colonies to remove the monarch from their head of state and for Britain to pay reparations for slavery.

Charles succeeds his mother, Queen Elizabeth, who reigned for 70 years and died on Thursday afternoon.

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The Jamaican prime minister said his country would mourn Elizabeth, and his counterpart from Antigua and Barbuda ordered the flags to be flown at half-mast until the day of her burial.

But in some quarters there are doubts about the role a distant monarch should play in the 21st century. Earlier this year, some Commonwealth leaders expressed unease at a summit in Kigali, Rwanda, over the change in leadership of the 54-nation club from Elizabeth to Charles.

And an eight-day tour in March of now heir to the throne Prince William and his wife, Kate, of Belize, Jamaica and the Bahamas was marked by calls for reparations payments and an apology for slavery.

“As the role of the monarchy changes, we believe this can be an opportunity to advance discussions on reparations for our region,” Niambi Hall-Campbell, a 44-year-old academic who chairs the National Committee, said Thursday. Bahamian reparations.

Hall-Campbell sent his condolences to the Queen’s family and noted Charles’ recognition of “the appalling atrocity of slavery” at a ceremony last year marking the end of British rule as the Barbados became a republic.

She said she hoped Charles would lead in a way that reflected the “required justice of the times. And that justice is restorative justice.”

More than 10 million Africans were chained in the Atlantic slave trade by European nations between the 15th and 19th centuries. Those who survived the brutal journey were forced to work on plantations in the Caribbean and the Americas.

Jamaican reparations lawyer Rosalea Hamilton said Charles’ comments at the Kigali conference about his personal grief over slavery offered “some hope that he will learn from history, understand the painful impact that many nations have suffered until today” and will meet the need. for repairs.

The new king did not mention reparations in the Kigali speech.

The Advocates Network, which Hamilton coordinates, published an open letter calling for “apologies and reparations” during William and Kate’s visit.

The Queen’s grandchildren have the chance to lead the conversation on repairs, Hamilton added.

Last year, the Jamaican government announced plans to seek compensation from Britain for forcibly transporting around 600,000 Africans to work on sugar cane and banana plantations that have created fortunes for the British slave owners.

“Whoever takes over should be asked to allow the royal family to pay reparations to the African people,” said David Denny, secretary general of the Caribbean Movement for Peace and Integration, Barbados.

“We should all be working towards removing the royal family as the head of state of our nations,” he said.

Jamaica has signaled that it may soon follow Barbados in abandoning royal rule. Both remain members of the Commonwealth.

An August survey showed 56% of Jamaicans backing the removal of the British monarch as head of state.

Mikael Phillips, an opposition member of the Jamaican parliament, in 2020 tabled a motion supporting the withdrawal.

“I hope, as the Prime Minister said in one of his expressions, that he will go faster when there is a new monarch in place,” Phillips said Thursday.

Allen Chastanet, a former prime minister of Saint Lucia and now opposition leader, told Reuters he supported what he described as a “general” movement towards republicanism in his country.

“I would certainly support at this point to become a republic,” he said.

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Research on the removal of metal from water http://www.mine3.net/research-on-the-removal-of-metal-from-water/ Tue, 06 Sep 2022 19:37:12 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/research-on-the-removal-of-metal-from-water/

IIT-BHU has carried out research on the removal of copper, nickel and zinc from contaminated water using fired and unfired balls.

The research presents a comparative study between fired and unfired beads to remove copper, nickel and zinc ions from the aqueous phase.

This study revealed that fired and unfired beads can be reused for four adsorption-desorption cycles.

The comparison of the adsorption capacities revealed that the unfired beads removed copper, nickel and zinc ions better than the fired beads.

Assistant Professor Dr. Vishal Mishra, Principal Investigator from the School of Biochemical Engineering provided insight into this research stating that machine learning algorithms were used to identify the scaling criterion and the reactor configuration for bead reactors.

Heavy metals are non-biodegradable, harmful and persistent pollutants in the environment. The presence of toxic heavy metals like copper, zinc and nickel in wastewater requires their removal.

Zinc is the 23rd most abundant element in the earth’s crust and its concentration in wastewater continues to increase. Zinc contamination occurs in water from plating and mining operations, fertilizer and fiber mills, and paper mills.

Natural and artificial contamination of copper in water is documented. It is toxic to aquatic animals even in small amounts.

An overdose of copper causes convulsions, cramps, vomiting and even death. Forging, mineral processing, steam power plants and paint formulation all use nickel.

Discharges from these industries are a major source of nickel pollution. Overexposure to nickel inhibits oxidative enzyme activity, damages the lungs, kidneys, causes dermatitis, and causes gastrointestinal disturbances.

He said drinking water containing 1.3 mg/L copper, 0.1 mg/L nickel and 5 mg/L zinc is allowed by international standards.

Recent research on metal ion adsorption prediction has focused on machine learning and artificial intelligence. This reduces the number of experiments, time and complexity involved in estimating adsorption capacity. It also saves time and resources. Decision trees and random forest are two machine learning models used here.

Current research advances our understanding of metal ion adsorption on novel beads and will aid in future applications through the accumulation of reliable data in the scientific literature.

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IIT-BHU Research on Metal Removal from Water http://www.mine3.net/iit-bhu-research-on-metal-removal-from-water/ Mon, 05 Sep 2022 07:59:23 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/iit-bhu-research-on-metal-removal-from-water/

Varanasi, September 5 (IANS): IIT-BHU has carried out research on the removal of copper, nickel and zinc from contaminated water using fired and unfired balls.

The research presents a comparative study between fired and unfired beads to remove copper, nickel and zinc ions from the aqueous phase.

This study revealed that fired and unfired beads can be reused for four adsorption-desorption cycles.

The comparison of the adsorption capacities revealed that the unfired beads removed copper, nickel and zinc ions better than the fired beads.

Assistant Professor Dr. Vishal Mishra, Principal Investigator from the School of Biochemical Engineering provided insight into this research stating that machine learning algorithms were used to identify the scaling criterion and the reactor configuration for bead reactors.

Heavy metals are non-biodegradable, harmful and persistent pollutants in the environment. The presence of toxic heavy metals like copper, zinc and nickel in wastewater requires their removal.

Zinc is the 23rd most abundant element in the earth’s crust and its concentration in wastewater continues to increase. Zinc contamination occurs in water from plating and mining operations, fertilizer and fiber mills, and paper mills.

Natural and artificial contamination of copper in water is documented. It is toxic to aquatic animals even in small amounts.

An overdose of copper causes convulsions, cramps, vomiting and even death. Forging, mineral processing, steam power plants and paint formulation all use nickel.

Discharges from these industries are a major source of nickel pollution. Overexposure to nickel inhibits oxidative enzyme activity, damages the lungs, kidneys, causes dermatitis, and causes gastrointestinal disturbances.

He said drinking water containing 1.3 mg/L copper, 0.1 mg/L nickel and 5 mg/L zinc is allowed by international standards.

Recent research on metal ion adsorption prediction has focused on machine learning and artificial intelligence. This reduces the number of experiments, time and complexity involved in estimating adsorption capacity. It also saves time and resources. Decision trees and random forest are two machine learning models used here.

Current research advances our understanding of metal ion adsorption on new beads and will contribute to future applications through the accumulation of reliable data in the scientific literature.

This research is published in the Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, published by Taylor and Francis online.

]]> KalNorth – REMOVAL FROM ASX OFFICIAL LIST http://www.mine3.net/kalnorth-removal-from-asx-official-list/ Thu, 25 Aug 2022 15:28:48 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/kalnorth-removal-from-asx-official-list/

KalNorth Gold Mines Limited (ASX:KGM) advises that as of the close of trading today, Wednesday August 24, 2022the Company will be removed from the official list of the ASX (”Delisting”).

The delisting is a consequence of the Company’s securities having been suspended from trading on ASX for the past two years.

Following the delisting, all existing shareholders who hold their KGM shares through CHESS will have their holdings converted to issuer-sponsored shares. There will be no change for shareholders whose holdings are already sponsored by the issuer.

The Company will be mailing issuer-sponsored updated holding statements to all shareholders in the near future. In order to reduce costs, the administrative burden and to avoid delays linked to the ordinary postal service, the directors are asking all shareholders to opt for electronic communication in the future. This will allow the Company to communicate with shareholders quickly and inexpensively. The Company will mail instructions on how to opt in to electronic communication. The Directors continue to assess new business opportunities and with net liquidity of just over $15 million, the Company is well positioned to take advantage of appropriate opportunities. Updates will be posted on the Company’s website at www.kalnorthgoldmines.com.

Contact:

Tel: +61 8 9380 6789

Web: www.kalnorthgoldmines.com

(C) 2022 electronic news edition, source ENP Newswire

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Gujarat Mineral seeks Consultant for Dry Pyrite Beneficiation Technology / Sulfur Removal Plant http://www.mine3.net/gujarat-mineral-seeks-consultant-for-dry-pyrite-beneficiation-technology-sulfur-removal-plant/ Tue, 23 Aug 2022 07:40:00 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/gujarat-mineral-seeks-consultant-for-dry-pyrite-beneficiation-technology-sulfur-removal-plant/ The Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation (GMDC) has announced that it plans to partner with technology consultants for the dry enrichment technology pyrite and sulfur removal plant.

GMDC, a Gujarat government company, has been a mining pioneer for over six decades, serving the mineral and solid fuel needs of industries based inside and outside Gujarat. The mining activities of the GMDC are spread over the districts of the state of Kutch, Devbhoomi Dwarka, Bhavnagar, Bharuch, Panchmahal and Banaskantha. It currently processes minerals like lignite, bauxite, fluorspar, manganese, ball clay, silica sand, bentonite clay and limestone. The GMDC has also set up a 250 MW lignite-based thermal power station at Nani Chher in Kutch, a 200.9 MW wind power station at Maliya, Jodiya, Godsar, Bhanvad and a 5 MW solar power station at the Panandhro project.

Lignite produced from lignite mine in Surkha (North), Bhavnagar, is associated with pyrite, ash and sulphur.

These gangue minerals deteriorate the quality of lignite, thereby reducing the performance efficiency of the end user. GMDC currently operates five (5) lignite mines in Gujarat.

GMDC therefore requires that pyrites be removed from the lignite produced by its Surkha mine (North) before supplying it to its customers. Removing pyrites helps reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, reduces boiler tube breakage and clogging, and helps improve boiler efficiency.

As part of the downstream integration, GMDC is keen to remove this pyrite from lignite to provide clean fuel to customers. The company will also commission a pyrite removal plant at Bhavnagar using the latest and best dry enrichment technology.

To this end, GMDC intends to appoint a consultant for the design, engineering, fabrication, supply, installation and commissioning of a Modular Lignite Washhouse (Sulphur Removal Plant/ pyrite) with an appropriate crusher from 1.50 million tonnes of lignite graded at 10% per year by Respect for the Environment. dry technology.

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Carbon removal startups need a code of conduct http://www.mine3.net/carbon-removal-startups-need-a-code-of-conduct/ Sat, 20 Aug 2022 10:10:26 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/carbon-removal-startups-need-a-code-of-conduct/

Interest in carbon dioxide removal has exploded in recent years. Money from Big Tech and venture capitalists is funding a growing number of startups, with more than $1.4 billion pouring into the climate tech space in the last quarter. But there are potential ethical issues that should be resolved before the industry’s gold rush goes too far.

“Truly uncharted territory is what CDR means for environmental and social justice, and that’s where I see a lack of understanding,” said Lauren Gifford, postdoctoral research associate at the University of Arizona, who has studied carbon governance for over a decade. She and other scientists are concerned that emerging technologies such as direct air capture are being deployed without sufficient oversight or foresight about potential unintended negative consequences.

The problems that the CDR will have to face are multiple. From noise pollution from direct air capture installations to the ecological impacts of land-based and ocean-based carbon removal techniques, industry has a lot to consider as CDR is increasingly tested and deployed at large scale.

The scientific community and industry strive to create an ethical framework around carbon removal. Although, to be clear, nothing published so far has had any real binding force.

In May, researchers published an article in Frontiers in Marine Science that called for a scientific code of conduct for ocean-based carbon removal, an area that has already come under scrutiny to go too far. far too quickly, without sufficiently taking into account the ecological risks. what startups are trying to do. This includes a 2012 rogue experiment to seed the ocean with iron, encouraging a plankton bloom that would suck up carbon dioxide. The proposed code of conduct includes provisions for public or stakeholder engagement, minimization of potential harm, and rules on funding.

The CDR community itself is also beginning to do self-examination. The Carbon Business Council, a nonprofit coalition of about 40 carbon management startups, has created a “Pledge to Restore the Earth.” Members must sign the document, which includes a pledge that, among other things, they will be “aware of the implications my work may have for the biosphere as a whole.”

Ben Rubin, the council’s executive director, said the group was inspired by similar oaths taken by members of the medical and legal professions. “By arranging these tenants for responsible growth, I think we really have an opportunity as we scale out the gigatons to do it right and ensure that communities will benefit from the location of the projects,” he said. .

A carbon removal start-up, Planetary, goes one step further and writes its own code of conduct. The company, which has developed a process that purifies and stores mining waste in the ocean, plans to deposit its substance in approved ocean outfalls like sewage treatment plants and power plants.

Pete Chargin, head of strategy and security at Planetary, said the startup’s management team has always been focused on security and scientific rigor. At the same time, “on the other side of the ledger, what drives us to go faster is the fact that the ocean may be heading towards a tipping point where it’s impossible to recover” , did he declare.

When Planetary first started thinking about adopting a code of conduct, Chargin assumed one already existed, but was surprised to find there really wasn’t anything he could beg, borrow, or steal. “And frankly, the things that were being released were, in my opinion, not action-oriented,” he said.

He has started working with “a few ocean-based NGOs and businesses to start bouncing our ideas off them,” and said Planetary hopes to release an early draft for public comment by the end of the quarter.

Codes of conduct like the Carbon Business Council’s Ethical Oath and Planetary’s efforts “could go either way,” according to Gifford. In his opinion, they are good only insofar as they are applied. Otherwise, they might end up doing more for corporate greenwashing than making sure that for-profit carbon removal entities don’t harm the continued levy.

Like companies’ net zero commitments, these codes of conduct have no teeth; nothing holds promise takers and oath takers accountable for their promises. In the worst case, the rampant growth of the carbon removal industry could cause irreversible damage to local people and ecosystems serving major polluters willing to pay for removal services.

However, the publication of a public commitment can encourage companies to behave responsibly. “There’s a lot of social pressure going on,” as well as reputational risk, said Simon Nicholson, an associate professor of international relations at American University whose work focuses on global environmental governance.

Public commitments can also be reinforced by customer pressure. “You can have a lot of good intentions, but you can also have really poor quality products,” Nicholson said. That’s why he thinks it’s critical that big corporate buyers of carbon offset credits, companies like Microsoft and Stripe, hire teams of researchers to assess applications from carbon offset startups. (Although it’s worth noting that even discerning customers like Stripe have invested in carbon-free projects that have subsequently come under intense scrutiny.)

“You can have a lot of good intentions, but you can also have really poor quality products.”

Climate researchers point to lessons learned from the carbon offset market as a harbinger of what could happen with carbon removal if care is not taken to put guardrails around a free market for all. Forest carbon offset programs in places like Indonesia, Peru and the Central African Republic have displaced local communities from lands “that they have used for generations for their subsistence, livelihood and cultural reasons”, Gifford said. These communities also tend to be already the most affected by climate change, while contributing the least to it. There is even compelling evidence that some of these forest conservation offset projects are doing more harm than good.

Although young, the field of carbon removal is already beginning to see shadows of the same problems. Land-based forest restoration often takes place on rich and high-demand agricultural lands in the Global South. A study found that land-intensive CDR could lead to a fivefold increase in food prices, which would be extremely devastating for local communities.

In any carbon removal project, it is essential that frontline communities are consulted and included. That means both people living near project sites as well as workers making the move, said Andrew Bergman, who holds a Ph.D. student in applied physics at Harvard studying CDR and collective governance of infrastructures. Groups such as local fishing communities could be significantly impacted by ocean-based CDR projects, for example, and deserve a say in how they are implemented, if at all.

“You can’t put carbon removal projects ahead of people’s well-being.”

He recommended that companies include in their codes of conduct an allowance for community and worker seats on their boards. These communities are then able to ask questions about where carbon is stored and what effects it may have on ecosystems or the built environment.

According to Bergman, “like so many technocratic interventions,” carbon removal has become an end in itself, as opposed to a means to an end. “You can’t put carbon removal projects ahead of people’s well-being,” he said.

Beyond the impact on the community, the other risk of removing carbon is that its existence allows companies, including the fossil fuel companies that support these projects, to continue polluting the atmosphere.

This means that the most critical part of a good carbon removal framework is recognizing that work must be accompanied by a good faith effort to reduce emissions so that there is less carbon to remove from the atmosphere first.

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Dadumajra dump: MC sends letter of intent to agency for disposal of legacy waste http://www.mine3.net/dadumajra-dump-mc-sends-letter-of-intent-to-agency-for-disposal-of-legacy-waste/ Thu, 18 Aug 2022 21:39:46 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/dadumajra-dump-mc-sends-letter-of-intent-to-agency-for-disposal-of-legacy-waste/

Going a step further towards the disposal of more than 7.5 lakh metric tons (MT) of legacy waste piled up at the Dadumajra landfill since 2005, the municipal corporation released the finalized Letter of Intent (LoI) to the agency on Thursday. for the project.

MC Commissioner Anindita Mitra said the letter of intent was issued to the agency for the submission of the performance bank guarantee during this week and that the bio-extraction works to remove legacy waste will begin by the first week of September.

She said the agency, Aakanksha Enterprises, assured MC to process the target within 12 to 18 months. “This will not only solve the foul odor problem, but will reduce repeat fires, which will bring huge relief to residents living near the landfill,” she said.

Of the three companies shortlisted for the project, Aakanksha Enterprises had submitted the lowest bid of 79.68 crores. After further negotiations, the offer was reduced to 68 crore, the estimated cost of the project.

The Dadumajra landfill was one of the central issues in last year’s municipal elections. This was also one of the reasons for Chandigarh’s poor performance in the last two Swachh Survekshan rankings. The site has been blamed for serious health problems in the large population living around it.

Of these, 5 lakh MT dating back to before 2005 are being bio-mined as part of a Smart City project. Originally scheduled to be completed by May 2021, the project now has an August 2023 deadline, although officials say it should be reached by December 2022. (HT PHOTO)

A total of 12.5 lakh MT of legacy waste needs to be disposed of at landfill to reclaim over 25 acres of land.

Of these, 5 lakh MT dating back to before 2005 are being bio-mined as part of a Smart City project. Originally scheduled to be completed by May 2021, the project now has an August 2023 deadline, although officials say it should be completed by December 2022.

The The 68 crore project under the Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0 will target the remaining 7.5 lakh MT of legacy waste dumped at the Dadumajra site after 2005.

While Chandigarh’s daily solid waste generation is around 550-600 MT, most of it is dumped at landfill without treatment.

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Aluminum sludge as a natural material for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater http://www.mine3.net/aluminum-sludge-as-a-natural-material-for-the-removal-of-heavy-metals-from-wastewater/ Wed, 17 Aug 2022 07:03:35 +0000 http://www.mine3.net/aluminum-sludge-as-a-natural-material-for-the-removal-of-heavy-metals-from-wastewater/

A new article in the magazine Sustainability investigated the use of aluminum sludge for the remediation of heavy metal contaminants in wastewater. An international team of scientists from Algeria, Sweden, India, Australia, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia contributed to the research.

Study: Removal of copper and zinc from wastewater using alum sludge recovered from a sewage treatment plant. Image Credit: Poh Smith/Shutterstock.com

Contamination of wastewater by heavy metals

Domestic and industrial activity produces large amounts of wastewater, which poses a hazard to the environment due to contaminants such as organic waste and heavy metals. Heavy metals in particular cause damage to people, animals, plants and fragile ecosystems. Specific heavy metal hazards include their bioavailability, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity.

Several industries are affected by this major environmental and health issue, in particular the steel industry and mining. Additionally, illegal activities and landfills complicate the effective removal of contaminants, with heavy metals entering waterways and aquifers in large quantities every year across the world.

Recognizing the magnitude of this problem, several international bodies, including the EU and WHO, have introduced recommendations and regulations to mitigate the impact of heavy metal contamination.

Map showing the location of sludge sampling in the study area.  a) Algeria;  (b) the town of Bouira;  (c) Water treatment plant.

Map showing the location of sludge sampling in the study area. (a) Algeria; (b) Bouira city; (vs)wastewater treatment plant. Image Credit: Abba, AB et al., Sustainability

Remediation Strategies

Over the past few decades, several strategies have been investigated for the efficient removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater streams. Among the various methods proposed for wide industrial and commercial application, adsorption processes have attracted the interest of researchers and organizations.

While adsorption is a very efficient removal method, some key challenges exist with current technologies. A commonly used material for this purpose is activated carbon, but this material has disadvantages in terms of production costs, difficulties in separation and regeneration.

The use of alternative and abundant natural materials is a key focus of research on adsorption strategies for wastewater treatment. Industrial and commercial waste streams hold particular promise in this area today due to their availability, performance, cost-effectiveness, and ability to recover and convert them into value-added products rather than disposing of them in the waste stream. ‘environment.

Aluminum sludge

Aluminum sludge is a by-product of drinking water treatment. Aluminum salts are added to water to remove particles such as colloidal particles and make it drinkable. Once removed, these particles settle due to flocculation and coagulation processes and form sludge.

Currently, especially in developing countries, this sludge is disposed of in landfills and directly into rivers and streams, causing ecological and water quality problems. Due to the problems caused by sludge disposal, economically sound methods of safe disposal and reuse of aluminum sludge to ensure proper management of this critical waste is essential.

Schematic illustration of the preparation of an alum slurry sample.

Schematic illustration of the preparation of an alum slurry sample. Image Credit: Abba, AB et al., Sustainability

The large quantities of sludge produced annually offer many opportunities for value-added processes and the recovery of this material in accordance with circularity objectives. One of these uses includes the recovery of aluminum itself from sludge for industrial processes. Other opportunities exist with the use of this waste in wastewater treatment.

Some studies have already explored the use of this material for the removal of heavy metal contaminants. Large amounts of sludge and long contact times were used, with a study by Ngatenah et al. demonstrating the effective removal of copper and zinc ions, but at quantities of 2000 mg/L and with contact times of 25 to 180 minutes.

The study

In the new paper, the authors sought to assess the use of these industrial wastes for the removal of heavy metal contaminants from Algerian wastewater streams. They said using this industrial waste could be more cost-effective than current adsorption technologies.

Specifically, the authors studied the use of these industrial wastes for the removal of copper and zinc ions from synthetic wastewater. Aluminum sulphate is commonly used as a coagulant in the treatment of drinking water in Algeria, offering several possibilities of using this precious material for the remediation of contaminants by heavy metal ions.

XRD and SEM were used to analyze the aluminum sludge used in the study. The XRD revealed the presence of kaolinite, with an inadequate sequencing of the muds. SEM revealed the amorphous nature of the material. FTIR was used to examine bonds and functional groups. A considerable amount of organic matter has been observed in the mud, and it possesses a very porous nature with a large surface area.

Effect of the amount of sludge in the elimination of heavy metals in media with different pH.

Effect of the amount of sludge in the elimination of heavy metals in media with different pH.

Effect of the amount of sludge in the elimination of heavy metals in media with different pH. Image Credit: Abba, AB et al., Sustainability

Based on the study of the amount of sludge and the pH, the authors concluded that these factors influence the removal of copper and zinc ions. Different intended uses depending on the amount and pH (industrial wastewater, drinking water treatment, sewage) have been suggested in the article.

A high removal efficiency of zinc ions and copper ions was observed, which led the authors to conclude that this material is suitable for the removal of heavy metal contaminants from wastewater.

In summary, the paper demonstrated the beneficial use of aluminum sludge, a critical drinking water treatment waste stream, for large-scale removal of ionic heavy metal contaminants from wastewater. The authors suggested that future research could improve removal efficiency by considering the impact of time on adsorption methods using this abundant, inexpensive, and renewable waste resource.

Further reading

Abba, AB et al. (2022) Removal of copper and zinc from wastewater using alum sludge recovered from a water treatment plant Sustainability 14(16) 9806 [online] mdpi.com. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/14/16/9806

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